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Myopia Key Terms

Welcome to our comprehensive glossary of myopia-related terms. This curated collection aims to enhance your understanding of myopia and its associated concepts, providing clear and concise explanations for concerned parents, curious individuals, and healthcare professionals.

  • What is myopia?
    Myopia, also known as near-sightedness or short-sightedness, is the inability to see distant images or objects clearly. It occurs when the eye grows too long or the cornea and/or eye lens are too curved, relative to the length of the eyeball. Find out more
  • What causes myopia?
    Myopia is often hereditary, and typically begins in childhood and plateaus by the age of 20. Myopia may also develop in adulthood as a result of environmental factors or health problems, such as excessive near-vision work, diabetes, cataracts, or low light conditions. Find out more
  • Can myopia be cured?
    No, myopia cannot be permanently cured, but its progression can be slowed or managed. Find out more
  • How is myopia diagnosed?
    Myopia is diagnosed during a comprehensive eye exam using tests such as visual acuity, retinoscopy, or a autorefraction test. If you are diagnosed with myopia, your eye care professional will give you a prescription for corrective eyeglasses or contact lenses and discuss a myopia management therapy that is most suitable to your personal situation. Find out more
  • What are the different types of myopia?
    There are two main types of myopia, 'refractive myopia' and 'axial myopia'. Axial myopia is the most common, and unfortunately, also axial myopia that poses the biggest long-term risk. Find out more
  • What are the risks of myopia?
    Myopia can be easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses, but it can also pose serious risks to your child's eye health. Higher levels of myopia are associated with higher chances of developing vision-threatening eye conditions later in life, such as myopic macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts and retinal detachment. Find out more
  • What is myopia management?
    Myopia management is a series of treatments and strategies designed to slow the progression of myopia, or short-sightedness, in individuals. These methods aim to reduce the elongation of the eyeball and the associated worsening of vision and ultimately, decrease the risk of developing more severe eye-related complications in the future. Find out more
  • What are the benefits of myopia management?
    The benefits of myopia management include: improved vision and quality of life; reduced dependence on glasses or contact lenses; lower prescription costs; lower risk of eye diseases and complications; and increased self-esteem and confidence.
  • What are the options for myopia management?
    There are a number of evidence-based, safe and successful options to help delay myopia's onset and slow down the progression rate. They include: Hoya MiYOSMART spectacle lenses Hoya MiYOSMART Sun spectacle lenses Essilor Stellest® lenses CooperVision MiSight® 1 day Zeiss MyoCare® lenses Mark'ennovy MYLO contact lenses Ortho-K Night lenses Atropine eye drops Combination Therapies Red Light Therapy An eye care professional will be able to inform you which myopia control therapy is most suitable for your child. Find out more
  • Which myopia management option is best for my child?
    The best myopia control option can vary depending on several factors, including the age of the individual, the progression of myopia, any underlying eye conditions and lifestyle factors. It's important to consult with an eye care professional who can evaluate your specific situation and provide personalised recommendations. Find out more
  • How do treatment interventions work?
    Treatment interventions work by influencing the factors that affect eye growth and refractive error. For example: orthokeratology reshapes the cornea overnight to temporarily correct myopia; multifocal contact lenses provide different focal points for near and far vision to reduce eye strain; atropine eye drops relax the eye muscles and inhibit eye growth; and outdoor time exposes the eyes to natural light and reduces near-vision stress.
  • How effective is myopia management
    The effectiveness of myopia control methods varies based on factors such as the chosen intervention type, the degree of myopia, age, and individual compliance with the prescribed treatment plan. Orthokeratology, multifocal contact lenses, and atropine eye drops are among the options with varying rates of success. The key to optimizing treatment outcomes lies in early intervention and regular follow-ups with an eye care professional. Compliance with the prescribed regimen, whether it involves wearing corrective lenses, using eye drops, or adhering to lifestyle changes, is crucial. Additionally, individual responses to treatment can differ based on factors like initial myopia severity, overall eye health, and genetic predispositions. Recognising the unique nature of each child's situation underscores the importance of personalised care in myopia management.
  • How long does a child need to engage in myopia management treatment?
    When considering myopia control, it's important that you realise from the beginning, that myopia management is a long-term strategy. Myopia control treatments usually need to be adopted until your child stops growing, as myopia often stabilises once they reach adulthood. This period can vary, but it commonly extends through the teenage years. However in certain situations, particularly in cases of high myopia or where the risk of progression is significant, ongoing treatment into adulthood may be necessary. Regular eye check-ups will help determine the need for continued management.
  • How often do I need to visit an eye care professional when engaging in myopia management?
    The frequency of visits to the eye doctor for myopia management depends on the type of intervention and the level of monitoring required. Generally speaking, you should expect to visit your optometrist at least every six months for regular check-ups and follow-ups. Your optometrist may also recommend additional visits if there are any changes in your vision or eye health.
  • What are the side effects or risks of myopia management?
    Myopia management offers numerous benefits for children's vision, but potential side effects are possible. These include discomfort, dryness, infection, allergic reactions, corneal abrasion, reduced contrast sensitivity, peripheral vision issues, a rebound effect, and diminishing effectiveness over time. Though rare, these issues underscore the importance of careful compliance with prescribed interventions, such as contact lenses or eye drops. Regular monitoring, adherence to eye doctor instructions, and prompt reporting of any issues are crucial for minimising risks. Find out more
  • What are the costs of myopia management?
    The costs of myopia management vary depending on the type of intervention, the duration of treatment, and the provider fees. Some interventions may have higher upfront costs but lower maintenance costs, while others may have lower upfront costs but higher maintenance costs. You should compare the costs and benefits of each option with your care professional and consider your budget and insurance coverage. Find out more
  • How do I get started with myopia management?
    If you are interested in starting myopia management for yourself or your child, you should schedule an appointment with your optometrist for a comprehensive eye exam and a consultation about your options. Your optometrist will assess your vision and eye health, explain the benefits and risks of each option, answer your questions, and help you make an informed decision based on your needs and goals.
  • How do I prepare for my myopia management consultation?
    To prepare for your appointment, you should bring: your current glasses or contact lenses (if any); your previous prescriptions (if available); your medical history (including any medications or allergies); your family history (especially any relatives with high levels of myopia or eye diseases); your lifestyle habits (such as how much time you spend on near-vision tasks or outdoors); your expectations and concerns (such as what you hope to achieve with myopia management); and any questions you have for your optometrist. Find out more
  • What happens during my myopia management consultation?
    During your appointment, an optometrist will perform a comprehensive eye exam using various tests and instruments to measure your vision and eye health. Your eye doctor will also discuss with you your options for myopia management and explain their benefits and risks in detail. You will have an opportunity to ask questions and express your preferences. If you decide to proceed with a treatment intervention, your eye doctor will provide you with instructions on how to use it correctly and safely. Find out more
  • What happens after my management management consultation?
    After your appointment, you should follow your optometrists instructions carefully and use your chosen intervention as prescribed. You should also monitor your vision and eye health regularly and report any changes or problems to your optometrist as soon as possible. You should also attend all scheduled follow-up visits with your eye doctor to check your progress and adjust your treatment if needed. Find out more
  • Can I stop using glasses or contact lenses after starting myopia management?
    Depending on the type of intervention you choose, you may be able to reduce or eliminate your need for glasses or contact lenses after starting myopia management. For example: orthokeratology provides temporary correction that lasts throughout the day without glasses or contact lenses; multifocal contact lenses provide clear vision at all distances without glasses; atropine eye drops do not affect vision quality but may require glasses for near-vision tasks; outdoor time does not require any optical correction but may not be sufficient by itself. However, you should always consult with your optometrist before making any changes to your management plan.
  • Can I switch between different myopia management therapies when in engaging in a treatment plan?
    It is possible to switch between different interventions for myopia management if you are not satisfied with your current option or if you want to try something new. However, you should always consult with your optometrist before making any changes to your treatment plan. Your optometrist will advise you on how to transition safely and effectively between different interventions without compromising your vision or eye health.
  • What age should you start to implement myopia control strategies?
    The age to start implementing myopia control strategies can vary, but it is generally recommended to begin interventions in childhood, typically around the age of 6 to 18 years old, when myopia often starts to develop and progresses more rapidly. The effectiveness of myopia control strategies tends to be greater when initiated at an earlier age. However, it's crucial to note that individual factors, such as the rate of myopia progression and overall eye health, should be considered when determining the appropriate time to start intervention. Find out more
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Types of

There are two main types...

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Myopia Symptoms

What to look out for

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